Author Guidelines

1. Introductory notes

This document constitutes the University of Wales Press's (UWP) general submission guidelines for authors, designed to streamline the publication process to which every manuscript is subject regarding editorial quality, production schedule and resource commitment on the part of UWP. It includes one subordinate paragraph (3.4b, regarding referencing, which differ from standard format) for authors in preparation of legal texts; HASS authors should follow the present guidelines.

It is required that you refer closely to UWP's guidelines at the time of writing and preparing your manuscript in order to ensure that it is accepted by UWP at first submission. All manuscripts submitted to UWP must employ stylistic consistency throughout.

Authors in the process of manuscript preparation are asked by UWP to supply a 20-page sample of the manuscript at the earliest opportunity. UWP will provide editorial feedback on the sample script at writing stage.

If you are a volume editor , please ensure that you submit a copy of these guidelines to each contributor during the preparation of scripts. It will be your responsibility to submit their contributions to UWP in conformity with these guidelines, which will make your job easier as the book progresses through proof stages.

Scripts that are intended for series / journal publication should adhere first to these general guidelines, referring individually to the existing and occasionally modified styles of those series/journals as instances may arise.

There are some fundamental requirements for all manuscripts submitted to UWP, effectively a final checklist for you as author:

  • all pages in manuscript paginated (i.e. consecutively numbered)
  • all text (main text and notes) double-spaced throughout
  • font Times New Roman, 12-point (in main text and notes)
  • all text (main text and notes) justified left
  • footnotes/endnotes restart at 1 for each element of the manuscript
  • when multiple text files are supplied, they should be named with a number prefix e.g. 00, 01, 02 to indicate clearly the order of material
  • all live hyperlinks removed
  • all instances of Latin words/abbreviations in references (e.g. ibid.) revised to author and short-title system; UWP will not accept manuscripts that use ibid. or op.cit.

During UWP's editorial preparation of your manuscript:

  • all queries arising from the text will be resolved between you and the copy-editor
  • your manuscript will be prepared for typesetting, and first proofs made available to you for correcting (no major textual alterations should be made at this stage as all text should be final at the time of manuscript submission)
  • corrected second proofs will be prepared and made available for indexing purposes

Unless alternative arrangements are made, you will not prepare your manuscript as camera-ready copy, and a final numbered index will not be prepared until second proofs are available. Proofs for contributor volumes and journals are routinely seen only by volume or journal editors, although exceptions are frequent in this instance due to the complex specialist nature of much of the material published by UWP (contributors to series and journals published by UWP should also consult the relevant editorial panels or available style guidelines for the series or journals in question).

It should not be assumed that UWP will undertake the correction of poorly or hurriedly prepared manuscripts. Production and editorial work cannot properly begin until the complete and final manuscript, together with all required figures and high resolution images, have been accepted by the commissioning department. UWP retains the right to review the suitability of material for publication at all stages of the production process, and material that does not meet a reasonable level of presentation may be returned to the author.

All copyright matters should be discussed and cleared with UWP's commissioning department, and any necessary authorisations should be submitted along with the manuscript. All extracts from other texts and illustrations must be cleared with the copyright holder for permission to reproduce in your book in both print and e formats. Please consult UWP's commissioning department for advice regarding print runs, format, price, territories and language (information that is usually required to enable you to seek the necessary permissions). Please note that fairdealing no longer exists other than for private study or research.

2. Preparation of manuscript

Do not format your manuscript as if it were a book: its format will be established in-house by UWP's designers. This means you should keep the formatting of your manuscript as basic and simple as possible. Do not use multiple fonts or point sizes. The following are some basic indicators in the preparation of your manuscript:

  • All elements of the manuscript must have double line spacing: this includes main text, notes, references, prose or poetry quotations, tables, figure legends and image captions. Double spacing is required to allow sufficient room for the copy-editor to annotate hard copy and to facilitate consistent production cost estimates.

  • Allow margins of 2.54 cm on all sides (this is default for normal Word documents).

  • Use Times New Roman typeface only throughout the text (other fonts may not display some special sorts or smart quote marks, for example) in 12-point. This applies to main text and notes. Special sorts should be supplied separately as illustrations, as they occur in medieval script, for example, if they are not available for display in Word.

  • Pages should be numbered consecutively throughout; preliminary matter numbered with lower case roman numerals (i onwards), and the text proper numbered with arabic numerals (1 onwards). Any blank pages should be removed from the manuscript.

  • Superscript note cues in the main text should restart at 1 for each element, or chapter, in the manuscript.

  • Do not justify the margins; paragraphs should be flush left, ragged right. Text should be ranged left only, not justified on the right or centred. Headings and subheadings should also be typed ranged left with a line space above and below. Use subheadings sparingly and consult UWP's editor if you intend to use more than three levels of subheading.

  • At the end of each paragraph use two hard returns to show the start of the next paragraph; use the tab in addition in order to show the start of a paragraph. This will allow the copy-editor and typesetter correctly to identify continuation (no tab) or the start of a new paragraph (tab) following long quotations (which are called 'displayed extracts').

  • Use the indent function for setting off displayed extracts of prose or poetry (i.e. quoted extracts that do not run on in the main text). If instances of uniquely formatted poetry occur, you should consult UWP's editor to resolve any layout queries.

  • Any tracked changes highlighted in the submitted manuscript will be accepted as final. Ensure that there are no comments, annotations, hidden texts or live hyperlinks in your submitted manuscript.

  • For any figures and tables that require precise placement in relation to the text, place a call-out in square brackets to indicate the approximate location, e.g. [figure 2 near here].

  • Do not use the automatic hyphenation programme or hyphenate words manually at the end of a line. Only use hyphens in words that must be hyphenated wherever they appear.

The following relate to frequent errors and inconsistencies in submitted manuscripts (please consult the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors (ODWE) (OUP, 2014) in the first instance for any matters not detailed here):

  • Use only one space after full stops (periods) and colons. Typists are trained to put two spaces after a full stop. Only one space is required in a book.

  • Punctuation around quotations: place full stops, commas, colons and semi-colons outside closed quotation marks; only when grammatically complete should quoted sentences end with the full stop inside the quotation marks.

  • Place end-of-sentence superscript numbers after the full stop, closed-up, with no space preceding.

  • Superscripts should be used only for note cue numbering in the text, and where necessary in original source manuscript readings or in mathematical equations; type 3rd edition, for example, not 3rd edition. You should advise UWP's editor if any other instances of superscripts arise.

  • Ensure that you do not use l (ell) or I (upper case i) for 1 (one), O (oh) for 0 (zero), x (eks) for × (multiplication symbol), and so on.

  • Type the word 'and'; do not use ampersand (&) in your prose.

  • Please distinguish between hyphens and dashes: a hyphen (-) is a single short dash used for connecting words. An en dash (–) should be used without spaces for number range elisions, e.g. dates and page numbers, and also with a space before and after for parenthetical breaks in sentences.

  • Text should be typed in upper and lower case; do not use all upper case for chapter titles or headings (even when series styles give headings as all upper case). The exception is for acronyms.

  • Use italics sparingly for emphasis in normal text; it is better to make emphasis clear through sentence structure, without resorting to italics; see 2, italics.

  • Design elements, e.g. subheadings, should be treated consistently and legibly in order to allow the copy-editor and typesetter correctly to identify heading levels.

  • You should not place hard returns at the end of a line of text; hard returns should be used only to end paragraphs, headings or list items.

  • Ensure that web addresses or hyperlinks in the text are not live, as they can corrupt certain typesetting programmes.

3. Elements of manuscript

3.1 Preliminary matter

The first element is the front, or preliminary, matter that precedes the main text of the book, usually in the following order:

  • half title page (main title only)
  • series or blank page
  • title page (full title, author name, publisher imprint)
  • copyright page (prepared by UWP)
  • table of contents

Further preliminary matter may include the following:

  • dedication or epigraph
  • foreword (written by someone other than the book's author)
  • series foreword
  • preface
  • acknowledgements
  • lists of illustrations/figures/tables
  • list of abbreviations
  • introduction (unless it is the first chapter of the book)
3.2 Main text

The style of text in UK (not US) English should conform to the guide provided by the following publications: New Hart's Rules (OUP, 2014); New Oxford Spelling Dictionary (OUP, 2014); and New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors (ODWE) (OUP, 2014), specifically in relation to issues of spelling conventions, correct hyphenation, abbreviations, proper names, italicisation, capitalisation and use of other languages.

  • quotations

Within running text, quotations (set as 12-point, the same as the main text) should be in single quote marks (double for quotes within quotes). Quotations of three lines or more in prose passages should be displayed (i.e. indented on the printed page) without quotation marks (using single quote marks, therefore, for quotes within displayed extracts) and with a line space before and after. Use three ellipsis points to indicate deletions from within a sentence, but do not use ellipses at the beginning or end of the quotation.

It is important that the accuracy of quotations from other sources is checked before the manuscript is submitted. In general, authors should follow the text of the original for capitalisation and use of italics, and retain variant spellings as they appear in the original (even if such variants may conflict with usage in the main text as when, for example, US English spellings occur in source material). The omissions of any text within a quotation should be marked by an ellipsis (…); only enclose an ellipsis to mark an omission within square brackets if the quotation already contains an ellipsis in the original. If the author wishes to draw attention to an inaccuracy, the offending word(s) should be followed by [sic]. Any interpolations by the author should be enclosed in square brackets.

Please remember to seek permission for quotations; see introductory notes, 1.

  • italics

Italicise any words that are to appear in italic (rather than underline them in roman). Single words or short phrases in any language other than English or Welsh (whichever is the language of the book) should be in italic, but longer quotations in another language should be in roman within single quote marks; refer to ODWE for words/phrases in Latin.

In legal texts, case names should be given in italics (but not citations and statutes).

  • spellings

Make use consistently throughout your manuscript of either -ize endings when given as an alternative to -ise (for example, realize, privatize, organize; but note analyse, exercise, advertise) or -ise endings. US English spellings in the main text should be standardised to UK English spelling (with the exception of their occurrence in quotations).

  • hyphenation

A hyphen should only be used in attributive adjectives (eighteenth-century farm, long-lost relative) unless the first half of the compound adjective is unmistakably an adverb ending in -ly (e.g. happily married couple, a beautifully furnished house). There should be no hyphen in a compound proper name used as an adjective (a White House official). Note that there should be no hyphen in coexist, coeducation, reuse, coordinate, cooperate, rematch, but many less common compound words (especially with two vowels juxtaposed) are hyphenated, e.g. re-elect, co-opt; refer to ODWE.

  • commas

For preference, no serial or list comma (sometimes referred to as the 'Oxford comma') should be included before 'and' as in 'red, white and green' (not 'red, white, and green'). However, if any ambiguity is resolved by the inclusion of the serial comma, or its inclusion is desirable for clarification, then it is acceptable to use even when its use has not been adopted elsewhere in the text.

  • possessives

Jones's, Thomas's, Wales's, but classical names have no extra 's', e.g. Diogenes', Ulysses'. This convention may appear incongruous at times – e.g. Krauss's critique, Glass's Guide – but should be followed consistently.

  • that/which

UWP prefers 'that' for restrictive relative clauses, and 'which' for non-restrictive relative clauses (so 'mass demonstrations that took place in this year initially focused', or 'mass demonstrations, which took place in this year, initially focused').

  • ellipses

Use three dots only for all instances, whether or not the sentence has finished. Do not include point at the end of a sentence if it is to be followed by an ellipsis (so do not give 'Dots to be evenly spaced. . . . Then the next sentence', but rather 'Dots to be evenly spaced . . . Then the next sentence').

  • abbreviations and contractions

Generally, a full point for abbreviations (Fig., a.m., p.m., ed., vol.), but not for contractions (Mr, Dr, Revd, St (for saint; St. is the accepted contraction for street), Figs, eds, vols). Plural forms of some common abbreviations are effectively contractions, which means no point is required: ed., vol. and ch., which have a full point in the singular, are given as eds, vols and chs without a point in the plural (for use in notes and bibliographies).

Most acronyms and other abbreviations require no points – USA, TUC, NATO, MA, MP, PhD, MSc; note that ad precedes dates (ad 410) and bc follows (70 bc); refer to ODWE.

  • numbers

The usual request is that numbers up to 100 be written out in full, unless statistical or in a list. Numbers at the beginning of sentences and approximate numbers should be expressed in words. Percentages should be expressed as the number with 'per cent' (as '12 per cent'), but % should be used in tables. A comma should be included in all numbers of more than three digits, except for page/column/line numbers, document references and in tables.

  • number range elisions

Number range elisions should follow house style to elide (using en dash, not short dash) to the fewest figures possible, with the exclusion of digits in the group 10 to 19; so the examples 10–12, 15–19, 30–1, 42–3, 114–18, 132–6, 310–11, 1841–5.

  • money

For pre-decimal currency, £5 6s. 3d, 5s. 0d, 4d, are now the usual forms (note point following s. for shilling, no point following d for penny). Decimal currency should be expressed as 56p (not £0.56 unless in a list of money), £24.74, £12.05. Note that the forms used here are not italicised; refer to ODWE.

  • dates

These should be expressed as 1 April 1987 (not April 1st, 1987); Saturday, 29 September 1992; the 1990s (note that there is no apostrophe, and that '90s is not accepted); 1939–45; 1996–9; 2003–5; 1914–18 (not 1914–8, i.e. retain two digits after elision for numbers between 10 and 19); the fourteenth century (but a fourteenth-century church), in the mid-fourteenth century and a mid-fourteenth-century document, but a late eighteenth-century doorway, an early twelfth-century source.

  • capitalisation

This should be kept to a minimum in the text; for titles, initial capitals should generally be used only when attached to a personal name.

Titles of institutions and bodies should be capitalised, e.g. the Crown, the Labour Party, the Treasury, the Church (as opposed to a church meaning a building), the Central Committee, the Cabinet, Newport County Borough Council, the Welsh Office but less precise usages are usually lower case, thus the Conservative government, the committee, the council.

UWP style is that 'south' in 'south Wales' should take lower case (also 'north', 'east', 'west' Wales etc.), since this is not a specific political, administrative or geographical region (but exceptions, of course, for the names of organisations, e.g. South Wales Miners' Federation). South America and South Africa take upper case, for example, as they refer to the name of a continent and a political entity respectively.

The bias towards minimal capitalisation may require correcting on occasion, specifically if ambiguity results from an insistence on minimal capitalisation. Guidelines are not rigid rules, but UWP requires that usage be established and applied consistently throughout a manuscript.

  • illustrations (including maps)

You are asked to ensure that all necessary illustrative materials are supplied at the same time as submission of the final manuscript to UWP. You should consider the legibility of each illustration, and particularly of any labelling, once it has been reduced or enlarged to fit the printed page size; please ensure the consistency of spelling on illustrative material with your usage in the main text.

References in the text to illustrative material should take the form 'Table 1' etc. for tables and 'Figure 1' etc. for other illustrations including maps. Do not refer to illustrative material by saying 'in the following table', for instance, as it cannot be guaranteed that pagination will allow such precise positioning. It is usually helpful not to have the title for an illustrations included within the body of that illustration; titles should be provided separately so that they can be typeset as captions to match the text style.

Authors are requested to obtain all permissions for the reproduction of any illustrative material already in copyright. Obtaining permissions can be a lengthy process, which you should initiate well ahead of submitting your manuscript.

If supplied electronically, the following specification is required:

  • minimum 300 dpi, to print out at A5 size
  • greyscaled (if to be reproduced in black and white)
  • saved as .jpg, .eps or .tif
  • in the case of .eps files, ensure that all fonts are changed to outline

A separate list of captions, clearly identified with the illustration, should be supplied with the manuscript; corresponding captions should be given in the main text as well as supplied in the list.

  • tables

Tables may be included in position in the text files if they are straightforward, but large or complicated tables should be saved in a separate file from the text and their eventual position in the text noted in the margin. They should not be boxed or shaded.

Refer to tables in the text as 'in Table 1.2' rather than 'in the following table'. Captions for tables should be treated in the same way as captions for illustrations (i.e. given in the text, along with a separate list).

  • graphs

Graphs should always be supplied with their source data (usually as .xls files). This allows the designer to decide how they should appear and to ensure consistency of style throughout your book.

3.3 Notes

For the submission of manuscripts, UWP prefers submissions with endnotes rather than footnotes; UWP publishes its books to endnotes, not footnotes.

3.4a References

Ensure that all references are complete and accurate before submitting your manuscript, and that they are styled consistently. Unless alternative styles have been agreed upon with UWP in advance, references in manuscripts are required to follow the author and short-title system as below.

  • The author and short-title system is normally used within the humanities; references are required in notes, with a full bibliography at the end of the volume. Publication details should be presented consistently in notes and bibliography, preferred in the format (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000), but accepted also in the variant format (Minneapolis, 2000) if applied consistently (i.e. giving place of publication, but not the publisher's name).

First references in the notes (in each chapter or element of the manuscript) should be full references, given as follows:

Peter Hallward, Out of This World: Deleuze and the Philosophy of Creation (London and New York: Verso, 2006), pp. 36–7.

Second and all subsequent references in the notes (in each chapter or section of the manuscript) should be short title references, given as follows:

    Hallward, Out of This World, pp. 36–7.

In cases of frequent citation, it is acceptable to include references in running text after the first citation has been given its full reference in an endnote. For the second or subsequent occurrences of a reference in a chapter, therefore, a short citation form can be used, in parentheses, e.g. (pp. 36–7).

Use the following styles for first references to sources other than monographs:

articles in an edited volume

K. Popper, 'Normal science and its dangers', in I. Lakatos and A. B. Musgrave (eds), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970), pp. 56–72.

articles in a journal

E. C. Bowen, 'The Tradition of Elis Deirteth and the Medieval Grotesque in Rural Carmarthenshire', Welsh History Review, 19/1 (1998), 68–102.

the rules governing capitalisation in some languages can be complex, and the consistent guideline is to retain the capitalisation of original articles; the volume number is in arabic (without the word vol.); number within volume is in arabic also, to follow the volume number after a solidus; p. or pp. is not used before page number(s). If consistently applied, journal numbers can be presented in the style of the original publication as roman or arabic.

unpublished theses

P. B. Plouffe, 'The tainted Adam: the depiction of the American hero in film noir' (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1979), 68.


National Library of Wales, Ellis Papers 1698; 6 George IV, chap. 50, section 1, An Act for consolidating and amending the laws relative to Jurors and Juries.

internet addresses

Should be given in italic, e.g.

continual reference

For authorities and locations to which continual reference is made, an abbreviated form can be established on the first occurrence, e.g. National Library of Wales (NLW), the National Archive (TNA). If there are existing and widely used abbreviated forms (such as TNA), they should be adopted in all instances. Any abbreviations used should then be listed at the front of the manuscript (as a list of abbreviations, to be included in the preliminary matter, see 3.1).

Please note the following:

  • chapter or article titles should retain original capitalisation
  • if initials are given in names, they should be spaced, e.g. D. F. Bouchard (not D.F. Bouchard)
  • internet addresses should be given in italic, e.g., and should not be live
  • do not use Latin words/abbreviations in references (specifically 'ibid.' and 'op. cit.'), which lose their usefulness in e formats (where notes may appear in pop-up); use author and short-title system instead
3.4b References in legal texts

Styles within legal texts may necessarily vary from UWP's standard format (see 3.4a); please refer to New Hart's Rules (OUP, 2014), chapter 13 (pp. 253–65). Of specific note is the use of square brackets around dates that form an integral part of the reference.

Brackets, square brackets [], are used where the series has no consecutive volume numbers and the year is essential for finding the correct volume; the report of Donoghue v Stevenson is in the 1932 volume of the Appeal Cases, beginning at page 562, is thus written [1932] AC 562. Neutral citations also use square brackets for the year.

Parentheses, round brackets ( ), are used around the year in a legal citation when the series has consecutive volume numbers and the year is not essential for finding the case; to find the report cited as (1983) 77 Cr App R 76, for instance, the date is not integral because the volume number (77) indicates where you will find the report.

Citation of authorities should be in the following order of preference:

  • Where a judgment is reported in the Official Law Reports (AC, QB, Ch., Fam.) published by the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and Wales, that report must be cited.

  • If a judgment is not (or not yet) reported in the Official Law Reports but it is reported in the Weekly Law Reports (WLR) or the All England Law Reports (All ER) that report should be cited; if the case is reported in both the WLR. and the All ER, either report may properly be cited.

  • If a judgment is not reported in the Official Law Reports, the WLR or the All ER, but it is reported in any of the authoritative specialist series of reports which contain a headnote and are made by individuals holding a Senior Courts qualification (for the purposes of section 115 of the Courts and Legal Services Act 1990), the specialist report should be cited.

  • Where a judgment has not been reported, reference may be made to the official transcript (EWHC, EWCA, UKSC etc.).

3.5 Bibliography

You must include a bibliography with your manuscript (or a 'select bibliography', or 'works cited'), unless it has been editorially agreed otherwise, with entries set out in alpha order as the following examples:

Bowen, E. C., 'The Tradition of Elis Deirteth and the Medieval Grotesque in Rural Carmarthenshire', Welsh History Review, 19/1 (1998), 68–102.

Hallward, Peter, Out of This World: Deleuze and the Philosophy of Creation (London and New York: Verso, 2006).

Plouffe, P. B., 'The tainted Adam: the depiction of the American hero in film noir' (unpublished PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1979).

Popper, K., 'Normal science and its dangers', in I. Lakatos and A. B. Musgrave (eds), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970), pp. 56–72.

In legal texts, allow for variations from UWP's standard format (see 3.4a); please refer to New Hart's Rules (OUP, 2014), chapter 13 (pp. 253–65).